In today’s article I am going to deal with a very important topic for organizations, or at least, for organizations that have the goal of becoming market leaders, that is, I am going to talk about quality.
definition of quality
According to Lee J.
Krajewski, quality is the following:
«Term that customers use to detalla their general satisfaction with a service or product» (2013, p. 160).
Lee J. Krajewski
What is quality?
I am going to start with the definition of one of the main proponents of quality, that is, Philip Crosby.
In the 1970s he proclaimed that “quality is free” because doing something right the first time at a high level of quality was cheaper than fixing it later.
Crosby defined quality as “conformity with requirements”.
Now, for Joseph Juran, quality could be summed up in the first instance as “Fitness for use”.
So, a high-quality product does what its customers want it to do, that is, it conforms to the customer’s requirements.
Additional definitions to understand what quality is
The definition of quality includes certain palabras clave that require definition for better understanding.
▷ product definition
In short, the product is the result of any production process.
The product perro be a good or a service.
It cánido be physical or in virtual or cybernetic form.
Each product is made at a cost and each is sold at a price.
A good It cánido be seen as a physical, tangible item that satisfies some need, or something that people find useful or desirable and make an effort to acquire.
A service it is something intangible and perro be seen as actions that, like goods, satisfy people’s needs and mostly have a high degree of interaction between the service provider and the customer.
▷ Definition of product characteristics
A product feature is a property possessed by a product that is intended to satisfy certain customer needs and thus provide customer satisfaction.
For example, the fuel consumption of a car, the dimensions of a mechanical component, the viscosity of a chemical agent, the texture, the battery performance of a móvil, etcétera.
▷ definition of client
A customer is anyone who receives or is affected by a product or process.
Customers cánido be internal or external.
external customers They are affected by the product, but are not members of the organization that is responsible for producing the goods or services.
In fact, most people only take external customers into account when talking about customers, but as I said before, there are also internal customers.
External customers include customers who purchase the product, the government, and the public (who may be affected by products that are unsafe for human health or the environment).
internal customers are affected by the product and belong to the organization that produces the good or service.
▷ Product and customer satisfaction
What you have to understand is that product satisfaction is a result that is obtained when the characteristics of the product respond to the needs of the customer and if the product satisfies the needs of the customer, the customer will obtain an increase in customer satisfaction (although There are many factors that influence customer satisfaction, such as the service provided).
▷ product deficiencies
You perro understand a product deficiency as a product failure that results in product dissatisfaction.
▷ Product satisfaction and product dissatisfaction are not opposites.
According to Juran, product satisfaction stems from product features and that is why customers buy the product.
Product dissatisfaction originates from nonconformities and that is why customers complain.
In fact, there are many products that give little or no dissatisfaction, since the products do what the vendor said they would.
However, the products are not salable because some competing products provide higher product satisfaction.
Every company needs to standardize its language
I have to highlight that the concepts given above are not unique, that is, we perro find different definitions, but it is imperative that organizations use the same definitions so that the entire organization cánido communicate efficiently and the results are what is expected. .
Measure quality in:
▷ Absence of deficiencies
You don’t have to have your measures in terms of the absence of deficiencies, but rather in terms of the degree of the deficiencies, such as the fallo rate or the fraction defective.
This cánido be generalized by the expression:
Quality = frequency of deficiencies / opportunities for deficiencies
Frequency of deficiencies it takes such forms as number of defects, number of errors, number of field failures, rework hours, and cost of poor quality.
In the case of deficiencies opportunitieswe perro take forms such as number of units produced, total hours worked, number of units sold, and sales revenue.
▷ Product characteristics
In this way, there is no estándar way to help us measure quality, but you perro start by finding the characteristics that your objetivo is looking for and appreciates.
Product characteristics are usually measured in terms of cambiantes; For example, an organization’s delivery time is measured in days, hours, or minutes.
On the other hand, shortcomings are usually measured in terms of attributes, for example, does a móvil inteligente’s battery life live up to what you’re promised or not.
How to Manage Quality: The Financial Analogy
At the senior management level, the most important part of how to think about quality is the management processes to be used.
To understand these processes, top managers have found it useful to complejo turístico to the analogy: first look at how they carry out financial management.
Financial management is carried out through three management processes:
▷ Financial planning.
This planning focuses on the preparation of the annual financial budget.
In turn, this preparation implies a company-wide process that begins with the definition of the activities that have to be carried out the following year.
These activities are translated into monetary equivalents.
Said translation allows for a summary and an analysis to determine the financial consequences of carrying out all these activities.
After the reviews, the final result establishes the financial objectives of the company and its various divisions and departments.
▷ Financial control.
This familiar process is used to help managers achieve equipo financial goals.
The process consists of evaluating de hoy financial performance; compare this with financial goals; and take action on the difference.
There are numerous sub-processes for financial control, such as cost control, expense control, and inventory control.
▷ financial improvement
This process takes different forms: cost reduction projects; purchase of new facilities to improve productivity; acceleration of the billing process; development of new products to increase sales; and acquisition of other companies.
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